Type 3 (p?0.001), and Type 2 vs. cell wall 5-Methylcytidine structure of the various forms of crimson snow algae fast further analysis of the structure. is in charge of the crimson snow. This snow alga was referred to as prominent within the algal community colonizing 5-Methylcytidine Gulkana Harding and Glacier Icefield in Alaska13,14. The crimson snow appearing within the snow region across the snow series in the glaciers could be uncovered by evaluation of satellite pictures13. has been referred to as an associate of a fresh genus with two types: and spp. (previously spp. spend the majority of their lifestyle routine as cyst cells, which tend to be more resistant to harsh conditions. These forms do not divide on the snow surface throughout the summer season but show metabolic processes. Transformation into cyst cells goes along with the accumulation of storage metabolites such as pigments, lipids, and sugars17,18. As shown by studies of snow algal blooming, algal cells are often found in this form19. The analyzed microalgae have become interesting from the biotechnological point of view, as they are a source of thermostable enzymes, and have gained commercial interest as a source of astaxanthin20. Snow algae may be a potential source of pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, or cosmetic products21. Cultivation of microalgae creates opportunities for the production of food and fuel commodities, but the low growth rate of many species can hinder this process22. In the era of global warming and the rapid melting of snow and ice, snow algae are of particular interest to scientists, as they contribute to environmental changes on Earth. Snow algae are an interesting research object for ecologists, climate scientists, microbiologists, and chemists. They are morphologically interesting, diverse in forms, not fully understood, and still very intriguing. 5-Methylcytidine The aim of our 5-Methylcytidine research was to carry out morphological and physicochemical analysis of various morphological types of red snow algal cells from selected sites in Alaska using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The different types of algal life cycle were visualized using various light and scanning electron microscopy techniques and compared. The presence of intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides in the algae was examined by spectroscopic analyses as well. Materials and methods Samples Red snow samples from two glaciers in Alaska (USA) were analyzed in this study. The samples were collected with a stainless-steel scoop (1C2?cm in depth), melted, and preserved in a 3% formalin solution (Fujifilm Wako Chemicals) in 30-ml polyethylene bottles. The study sites were Gulkana Glacier [position: N63.28697, E145.39575, elevation, 1796 (m)] and Harding Icefield [position: N60.17649 E149.73234, elevation, 1073 (m)]. Samples were obtained from August 5th to 9th, 2015. Images of the red snow from Gulkana Glacier and Harding Icefield are shown in Fig.?1. The pH of the collected snow was 6.3C6.4. The algal cell concentration in the snow was 3.2??1.9??104 cells mL?1 (Gulkana Glacier) and 5.2??2.6??104 cells mL?1 (Harding Icefield). Open in a separate window Figure 1 Red snow algae on Gulkana Glacier (A) and on Harding Icefield (B) in Alaska. The photos were taken on: (A) August 5, 2015; (B) August 9, 2015. Light microscopy Bright field light microscopy, DIC microscopy (Differential Interference Contrast), and EDF microscopy (Extended Depth of Focus) were used for imaging the algal cells. 2?l of the cell suspension were applied to the microscope slide. The Influenza A virus Nucleoprotein antibody cells were observed under a Zeiss Axiovert 40CFL light microscope Carl Zeiss (Germany). EDF microscopy photos were taken with an MA200 Nikon (Japan) optical microscope with inverted optics equipped with a confocal attachment that works with three lasers. 400C600 cells of each form of algal cells were measured using the ImageJ application.