Type 3 (p?5-Methylcytidine research was to carry out morphological and physicochemical analysis of various morphological types of red snow algal cells from selected sites in Alaska using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The different types of algal life cycle were visualized using various light and scanning electron microscopy techniques and compared. The presence of intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides in the algae was examined by spectroscopic analyses as well. Materials and methods Samples Red snow samples from two glaciers in Alaska (USA) were analyzed in this study. The samples were collected with a stainless-steel scoop (1C2?cm in depth), melted, and preserved in a 3% formalin solution (Fujifilm Wako Chemicals) in 30-ml polyethylene bottles. The study sites were Gulkana Glacier [position: N63.28697, E145.39575, elevation, 1796 (m)] and Harding Icefield [position: N60.17649 E149.73234, elevation, 1073 (m)]. Samples were obtained from August 5th to 9th, 2015. Images of the red snow from Gulkana Glacier and Harding Icefield are shown in Fig.?1. The pH of the collected snow was 6.3C6.4. The algal cell concentration in the snow was 3.2??1.9??104 cells mL?1 (Gulkana Glacier) and 5.2??2.6??104 cells mL?1 (Harding Icefield). Open in a separate window Figure 1 Red snow algae on Gulkana Glacier (A) and on Harding Icefield (B) in Alaska. The photos were taken on: (A) August 5, 2015; (B) August 9, 2015. Light microscopy Bright field light microscopy, DIC microscopy (Differential Interference Contrast), and EDF microscopy (Extended Depth of Focus) were used for imaging the algal cells. 2?l of the cell suspension were applied to the microscope slide. The Influenza A virus Nucleoprotein antibody cells were observed under a Zeiss Axiovert 40CFL light microscope Carl Zeiss (Germany). EDF microscopy photos were taken with an MA200 Nikon (Japan) optical microscope with inverted optics equipped with a confocal attachment that works with three lasers. 400C600 cells of each form of algal cells were measured using the ImageJ application.