There were positive bowel sounds and her stomach was not distended or tender to palpation. class=”kwd-title”>Keywords: crescentic glomerulonephritis, Simeprevir anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, ANCA-associated vasculitis Introduction Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is usually a syndrome associated with glomerular injury characterized by crescent formation that can be visualized on light microscopy. It is also referred to as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) due to the quick deterioration in renal function over the course of weeks to months, which can be fatal if left untreated. The syndrome is characterized by progressive loss of renal function, and indicators of nephritic syndrome Rabbit Polyclonal to TAS2R38 including azotemia, hematuria, oliguria, and hypertension.1-3 Crescentic GN can be classified into 3 types. Type 1, anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody-mediated disease characterized by linear deposits of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the basement membrane. Type 2, immune complex-mediated disease, which can be seen in multiple disorders including postinfectious glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy, as well as others, whereby granular deposits of immunoglobulins and match proteins deposit in the glomerulus. Type 3, referred to as pauci-immune due to lack of accentuation on immunofluorescent (IF) staining, which is usually often seen in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis.2,4 In rare instances, mixed patterns of injury can be seen as a consequence of 2 separate processes: anti-GBM disease and ANCA-associated vasculitis, most commonly anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA. It is Simeprevir estimated up to one third of patients with anti-GBM antibodies have ANCA antibodies as well.3 This so-called double antibody-positive RPGN is associated with poor outcomes. Such cases show heterogeneous phenotypic manifestations. Results from a large multicenter study by McAdoo et al5 revealed double antibody-positive RPGN cases often follow the aggressive presentation of anti-GBM disease with higher morbidity and mortality, and the chronic risk of relapse seen in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Treatment methods for crescentic GN are targeted to the underlying pathophysiology. A 3-pronged treatment approach consisting of plasma exchange (PLEX), corticosteroids, and immunosuppression is usually favored for anti-GBM disease. Cyclophosphamide is considered to be first-line treatment; however, there has been reported success with rituximab maintenance therapy following pulse cyclophosphamide induction therapy for anti-GBM disease.6 Rituximab in Simeprevir combination with corticosteroids is the treatment of choice for inducing remission in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis due to a favorable side effect profile.4 In 2010 2010, Jones et al7 compared rituximab plus cyclophosphamide to conventional cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine for induction therapy for ANCA-associated renal vasculitis. Both groups received glucocorticoids. The results of the rituximab versus cyclophosphamide in ANCA-associated renal vasculitis (RITUXVAS) trial exhibited rituximab was not superior to cyclophosphamide.7 A similar study by Stone et al8 evaluated rituximab plus placebo cyclophosphamide compared with placebo rituximab plus cyclophosphamide. Both groups received the same glucocorticoid regimen. The results showed rituximab was noninferior to cyclophosphamide for achieving remission in ANCA-associated vasculitis.8 Importantly, both of these trials showed no difference in adverse events between the 2 groups. In this article, we present a case of double antibody-positive RPGN in a patient who failed initial induction therapy targeting ANCA-associated vasculitis, and later responded to oral cyclophosphamide targeting anti-GBM disease. Case Presentation A 76-year-old female was referred to the Simeprevir hospital Simeprevir by her main care physician for evaluation of abnormal laboratory findings. The patient was found to have worsening renal function on routine laboratory tests with a creatine of 3.5 g/dL and her baseline around 1.2 g/dL. She reported vague symptoms over the past 2 months including malaise, fatigue, and some upper respiratory congestion. She was recently diagnosed with Eustachian tube dysfunction. She took approximately.